- ۰ دیدگاه
1. Nouns are a little bit complex in Latin. However, in my opinion, you will not find it surprising if you are already familiar with Arabic.
2. A noun in dictionary looks like this: digitus, -i, m.
2.1. The form you see in a dictionary is always the subject form of the noun.
2.2. In capillus, -i, m, -i indicates the grouping of the noun.
2.3. In porta, -ae, f, f indicates the grammatical gender.
3. Latin nouns belong to one of five declensions, and each noun has a gender, a number, and a case.
4. A declension is a group of nouns that share the same endings. Latin has five declensions, but the fourth and fifth declensions have only a few words.
4.1. The first declension includes nouns ending in -a: puella, villa, Europa, terra. Most first declension nouns are feminine.
4.2. The second declension includes nouns that end in -us: servus, ramus, numerus. There are also a few nouns belonging to this declension that end in -r: puer, vir. Most second declension nouns are masculine.
4.3. Third declension nouns don't have a specific ending for the nominative singular. Examples: arbor, vox, rex, urbs. Third declension nouns can be masculine, feminine, or neuter.
5. A Latin noun belongs to one of three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter.
6. Case means the function of word in a sentence. Words can have five cases in Latin.
6.1. Nominative case is used to indicate the subject or complement in a sentence.
6.2. Genitive case is used to show possession.
6.3. Dative case is mainly used for indirect objects.
6.4. Accusative case is used for direct objects and with some prepositions (ad, per, prope, in).
6.5. Ablative case has several uses. It can indicate the time when something occurs, the manner in which something happens, or the means by which something is done. It is also used with certain prepositions (sub, ex, in, cum, de).
6.6. Vocative case is used to call or address someone. For example, "O Maria!".
Memorize these words:
digitus, -i, m: finger
capillus, -i, m: hair
porta, -ae, f: door
finestra, -ae, f: window
verbum, -i, n: word
donum, -i, n: gift
manus, -us, f: hand
opus, -eris, n: work
nauta, -ae, m: sailor
villa: farm, country
arbor: tree, beam