یک پردیس

  1. Amnesia is a relatively rare disorder that may be temporary or permanent, resulting from multiple factors, in which, loss of memory function is beyond normal forgetting.
  2. Difficulty in forming new memories is called anterograde, whereas a problem in remembering old memories is termed retrograde.
  3. Film characters sometimes provide unrealistic depictions of amnesia by losing their memory after a concussion and later regaining it by a second head knock.
  4. Organic amnesia is a brain-based memory disorder resulting from a concussion, stroke, infection, or tumor.
  5. In a concussion, which can be in form of a collision or violent shaking, amnesia can develop rapidly. Symptoms of brain dysfunction following a concussion can be either moderate or severe. In a moderate one, symptoms include poor attention, slurred or incoherent speech, disorientation, and problems remembering. In a more severe concussion, symptoms include additional problems including persistent headaches, dizziness, fatigue, irritability, and intolerance of bright light or loud noise.
  6. In a stoke, which can be in form of a blockage in blood flow or bleeding from a ruptured brain artery, amnesia can develop rapidly by a blockage in blood flow or a ruptured brain artery that deprives the brain cells of oxygen. The symptoms include dizziness, weakness on one side of the body, and speech problems.
  7. In a viral infection, amnesia can develop gradually as brain structure damages.
  8. This amnesia can occur suddenly or gradually and may be temporary – as in transient global amnesia (or TGA, which is a sudden, short-term attack of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia, linked to a temporary reduction in cerebral blood flow) – or permanent – if the brain’s hippocampus is damaged.
  9. Both anterograde amnesia – trouble making new memories – and retrograde amnesia – difficulty recalling old memories – can occur.
  10. Functional amnesia involves retrograde memory loss with no apparent precipitation brain injury.
  11. Most people remember traumatic experiences well, but case studies suggest that some individuals may forget a highly stressful event and things associated with it.
  12. In traumatic amnesia, some process must produce the forgetting: repression – a theoretical process assumed to protect the self by unconsciously banishing troubling thoughts from awareness – and suppression – an active process of consciously trying not to think about a disturbing event.
  13. The process underlying this rare type of amnesia remains undetermined, but this amnesia can clear up with people recovering their forgotten memories.
  14. Dissociative disorder is an alteration of consciousness affecting a person’s memory and identity, and has three types: dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, and dissociative identity disorder.
  15. Dissociative amnesia is a retrograde amnesia for episodic events, linked to a stressful event.
  16. Dissociative fugue is a rare type of functional amnesia in which individuals may lose their identity along with their memories of the past. Linked to an emotionally troubling event, this type of amnesia can resolve quickly after a person is reminded of the forgotten event.
  17. Even more rare is dissociative identity disorder in which a person demonstrates multiple personalities with different memories.
  18. The famous case study in memory research involves Henry Molaison who, suffering from epileptic seizures, had both hippocampi removed during brain surgery. For the rest of his life, he produces no new episodic memory.
  19. Other people with organic amnesia may show memory recovery if their hippocampi are undamaged, but any recovery might only be partial, after a lengthy rehabilitation period. 
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